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HOME LEARNING DVARA SHAKSAINIK PRAVRUTIO NI SUCHNA BABAT GR SHIKSHAN VIBHAG GUJARAT SARKAR

HOME LEARNING DVARA SHAKSAINIK PRAVRUTIO NI SUCHNA BABAT GR
SHIKSHAN VIBHAG GUJARAT SARKAR

This seldom occurs in Nature: localization of gamete exchange – through dispersal limitations, preferential mating, cataclysm, or other cause – may lead to small actual Gamo demes which exchange gametes reasonably uniformly within themselves but are virtually separated from their neighboring Gamo demes. However, there may be low frequencies of exchange with these neighbors.

This may be viewed as the breaking up of a large sexual population (panmictic) into smaller overlapping sexual populations. This failure of panmixia leads to two important changes in overall population structure: the component Gamo demos vary (through gamete sampling) in their allele frequencies when compared with each other and with the theoretical panmictic original (this is known as dispersion, and its details can be estimated using expansion of an appropriate binomial equation); and the level of homozygosity rises in the entire collection of Gamo demes. The overall rise in homozygosity is quantified by the inbreeding coefficient (f or φ). 

Note that all homozygotes are increased in frequency – both the deleterious and the desirable. The mean phenotype of the Gamo demes collection is lower than that of the panmictic original – which is known as inbreeding depression. It is most important to note, however, that some dispersion lines will be superior to the panmictic original, while some will be about the same, and some will be inferior. The probabilities of each can be estimated from those binomial equations. In plant and animal breeding, procedures have been developed which deliberately utilize the effects of dispersion (such as line breeding, pure-line breeding, backcrossing). It can be shown that dispersion-assisted selection leads to the greatest genetic advance (ΔG=change in the phenotypic mean), and is much more powerful than selection acting without attendant dispersion. This is so for both allogamous (random fertilization)[6] and autogamous (self-fertilization) Gamo demes.

HOME LEARNING DVARA SHAKSAINIK PRAVRUTIO NI SUCHNA BABAT GR
SHIKSHAN VIBHAG GUJARAT SARKAR


HOME LEARNING DVARA SHAKSAINIK PRAVRUTIO NI SUCHNA BABAT GR
SHIKSHAN VIBHAG GUJARAT SARKAR

HOME LEARNING DVARA SHAKSAINIK PRAVRUTIO NI SUCHNA BABAT GR SHIKSHAN VIBHAG GUJARAT SARKAR Rating: 4.5 Diposkan Oleh: gujju dhamal

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